Answer: You do not talk about John Bargh’s data.
I went on hiatus with back to school events and letter of recommendation writing. However, I think this is a good story that raises lots of issues. I need to say upfront that these opinions are mine and do not necessarily reflect anyone else’s views. I might also be making a big enemy with this post, but I probably already have a few of those out there. To quote the Dark Knight: I’m not afraid, I’m angry.
Background: Bargh and Shalev (2012) published an article in Emotion where they predicted that trait loneliness would be “positively associated with the frequency, duration, and preferred water temperatures” of showers and baths (p. 156). The correlation between self-reported loneliness and self-reported “physical warmth extraction” from baths/showers was .57 in Study 1a (51 undergrads) and .37 in Study 1b (41 community members). This package received media attention and was discussed in a Psychology Today blog post with the title: “Feeling lonely? Take a warm bath.”
We failed to replicate this effect three times using three different kinds of samples. Our combined sample size was 925 and the overall estimate was – .02. We also used Bayesian estimation techniques and got similar results (the mean estimate was -.02 and 70% of the credible estimates were below zero). Again, the opinions expressed in this blog post are mine and only mine but the research was a collaborative effort with Rich Lucas and Joe Cesario.
[As an aside, John Kruschke gave a workshop at MSU this past weekend about Bayesian estimation. It was engaging and informative. This link will take you to his in press paper at JEP: General about the Bayesian t Test. It is well worth your time to read his paper.]
We just sent our paper off to get trashed in the undergo the peer review process. However, the point that I want to raise is more important than our findings. Bargh let Joe Cesario look at his data but he forbids us from talking about what Joe observed. So a gag order is in place.
I think this is bull****. There is no reason why there should be a veil of secrecy around raw data. How can we have an open and transparent science if researchers are not allowed to make observations about the underlying data used to make published claims?
I doubt very much that there is even a moderate association between trait loneliness and showering habits. It might not be zero, but it is hard to believe the population value is anything around .50. Consider Figure 1 in Richard, Bond, and Stokes-Zoota (2003, p. 336). This is a summary of 474 meta-analytic effect sizes in the r-metric across social psychology. Richard et al. noted that 5.28% of the effect sizes they summarized were greater than .50. Viewed against this distribution, the .57 from Bargh and Shalev’s Study 1a is unusual. A .57 correlation is something I might expect to see when calculating the correlation between two measures of very similar constructs using self-report scales.
So before more data are collected on this topic, I would hold off on making any recommendations about taking warm baths/showers to lonely people. To quote Uli Schimmack: “In the real world, effect sizes matter.” I think replication and transparency matter as well.
Coverage of the Bargh and Shalev (2012) Study: