A Partial Defense of the Pete Rose Rule

I tweeted this yesterday: Let’s adopt a Pete Rose Rule for fakers = banned for life.  Nothing questionable about fraud.  Jobs and funds are too scarce for 2nd chances.

My initial thought was that people who have been shown by a preponderance of the evidence to have passed faked datasets as legitimate should be banned from receiving grants and publishing papers for life.   [Pete Rose was a baseball player and manager in professional baseball who bet on games when he was a manager. This made him permanently ineligible to participate in the activities of professional baseball.]

Nick Brown didn’t like this suggestion and provided a thoughtful response on his blog.  My post is an attempt to defend my initial proposal. I don’t want to hijack his comments with a lengthy rejoinder. You can get banned for life from the Olympics for doping so I don’t think it is beyond the pale to make the same suggestion for science.  As always, I reserve the right to change my mind in the future!

At the outset, I agree with his suggestion that it is not 100% feasible given that there is no overall international governing body for scientific research like there is for professional sports or the Olympics. However, the research world is often surprisingly small and I think it would be possible to impose an informal ban that would stick. And I think it could be warranted because faking data is exceptionally damaging to science. I also think it is rare so perhaps it is not worth thinking about too much.

Fakers impose huge costs on the system.  First, they make journals and scientists look bad in the eyes of the public. This is unfortunate because the “public” ultimately pays for a considerable amount of scientific research.  Faked data undermine public confidence in scientists and this often bleeds over into discussions about unrelated issues such as climate change or whether vaccines cause autism.  Likewise, as Dr. Barr pointed out in a comment on Nick’s blog, there is a case to be made for taking legal action for fraud in some cases.

Second, it takes resources to investigate the fakers. At the risk of speaking in broad generalities, I suspect that huge amounts of time are invested when it comes to the investigation of faked data. It takes effort to evaluate the initial charge and then determine what was and was not faked for people with long CVs. Efforts also need to be expended determine whether co-authors were innocent or co-conspirators.  This is time and money NOT spent on new research, teaching students, reviewing papers, etc.

Third, fakers impose costs on their peers.  Academics is a competitive enterprise.  We are judged by the number and quality of our work.  I suspect it is much easier to pump out papers based on fake data than real data.  This matters because there are limited numbers of positions and grant dollars.  A grad student faker who gets a paper in say Science will have a huge advantage on the job market.  There are far more qualified people than university positions.  Universities that have merit-based systems end up paying superstars more than mere mortals.  A superstar who faked her/his/their way to an impressive CV could easily have a higher salary than an honest peer who can’t compete with faked data.  Likewise, fakers cause their peers to waste limited resources when researchers attempt to extend (or just replicate) interesting results.

To my mind, faking data is the worst crime in science because it undermines the integrity of the system.  Thus, I believe that it warrants a serious punishment once it is established after a thorough judicial process or a confession.  You might think a lifetime ban is too severe but I am not so sure.

Moreover, let’s say the field decides to let a faker back in the “game” after some kind of rehabilitation.  Is this wise? I worry that it would impose additional and never-ending costs on the system.  The rehabilitated faker is going to continue to drain the system until retirement. For example, it would cost resources to double-check everything she or he does in the future.  How am I supposed to treat a journal submission from a known faker? It would require extra effort, additional reviews, and a lot of teeth gnashing. I would think a paper from a faker would need to independently replicated before it was taken seriously (I think this is true of all papers, but that is a topic for another day).  Why should a known faker get grants when so many good proposals are not funded because of a lack of resources? Would you trust a rehabilitated faker to train grad students in your program?

So my solution is to kick the “convicted” faker out of the game forever.  There are lots of talented and bright people who can’t get into the game as it stands.  There are not enough resources to go around for deserving scientists who don’t cheat.  I know that I would personally never vote to hire a faker in my department.

But I am open-minded and I know it sounds harsh. I want to thank Nick for forcing me to think more about this. Comments are welcome!


Replication Project in Personality Psychology – Call for Submissions

Richard Lucas and I are editing a special issue of the Journal of Research in Personality dedicated to replication (Click here for complete details). This blog post describes the general process and a few of my random thoughts on the special issue. These are my thoughts and Rich may or may not share my views.  I also want to acknowledge that there are multiple ways of doing replication special issues and we have no illusions that our approach is ideal or uncontroversial.  These kinds of efforts are part of an evolving “conversation” in the field about replication efforts and experimentation should be tolerated.  I also want to make it clear that JRP has been open to replication studies for several years.  The point of the special issue is to actively encourage replication studies and try something new with a variant of pre-registration.

What is the General Process?

We modeled the call for papers on procedures others have used with replication special issues and registered reports (e.g., the special issue of Social Psychology, the Registered Replication Reports at PoPS).  Here is the gist:

  • Authors will submit proposals for replication studies by 1 July 2015. These extended abstracts will be screened for methodological rigor and the importance of the topic.
  • Authors of selected proposals will then be notified by 15 August 2015.
  • There is a deadline of 15 March 2016 to submit the finished manuscript.

We are looking to identify a set of well-designed replication studies that provide valuable information about findings in personality psychology (broadly construed). We hope to include a healthy mix of pre-registered direct replications involving new data collections (either by independent groups or adversarial collaborations) and replications using existing datasets for projects that are not amenable to new data collection (e.g., long-term longitudinal studies).  The specific outcome of the replication attempt will not be a factor in selection.  Indeed, we do not want proposals to describe the actual results!

Complete manuscript will be subjected to peer-review but the relevant issues will be adherence to the proposed research plan, the quality of the data analysis, and the reasonableness of the interpretations.  For example, proposing to use a sample size of 800 but submitting a final manuscript with 80 participants will be solid grounds for outright rejection.  Finding a null result after a good faith attempt that was clearly outlined before data collection will not be grounds for rejection.  Likewise, learning that a previously used measure had subpar psychometric properties in a new and larger sample is valuable information even if it might explain a failure to find predicted effects.  At the very least, such information about how measures perform in new samples provides important technical insights.

Why Do This?

Umm, replication is an important part of science?!?! But beyond that truism, I am excited to learn what happens when we try to organize a modest effort to replicate specific findings in personality psychology. Personality psychologists use a diverse set of methods beyond experiments such as diary and panel studies.  This creates special challenges and opportunities when it comes to replication efforts.  Thus, I see this special issue as a potential chance to learn how replication efforts can be adapted to the diverse kinds of studies conducted by personality researchers.

For example, multiple research groups might have broadly similar datasets that target similar constructs but with specific differences when it comes to the measures, timing of assessments, underlying populations, sample sizes, etc. This requires careful attention to methodological similarities and differences when it comes to interpreting whether particular findings converge across the different datasets.  It would be ideal if researchers paid some attention to these issues before the results of the investigations were known.  Otherwise, there might be a tendency to accentuate differences when results fail to converge. This is one of the reasons why we will entertain proposals that describe replication attempts using existing datasets.

I also think it is important to address a perception that Michael Inzlicht described in a recent blog post.  He suggested that some social psychologists believe that some personality psychologists are using current controversies in the field as a way to get payback for the person-situation debate.  In light of this perception, I think it is important for more personality researchers to engage in formal replication efforts of the sort that have been prominent in social psychology.  This can help counter perceptions that personality researchers are primarily interested in schadenfreude and criticizing our sibling discipline. Hopefully, the cold war is over.

[As an aside, I think it the current handwringing about replication and scientific integrity transcends social and personality psychology.  Moreover, the fates of personality and social psychology are intertwined given the way many departments and journals are structured.  Social and personality psychology (to the extent that there is a difference) each benefit when the other field is vibrant, replicable, and methodologically rigorous.  Few outside of our world make big distinctions between social and personality researchers so we all stand to lose if decision makers like funders and university administrators decide to discount the field over concerns about scientific rigor.]

What Kinds of Replication Studies Are Ideal?

In a nut-shell: High quality replications of interesting and important studies in personality psychology.  To offer a potentially self-serving example, the recent replication of the association between I-words and narcissism is a good example.  The original study was relatively well-cited but it was not particularly strong in terms of sample size.  There were few convincing replications in the literature and it was often accepted as an article of faith that the finding was robust.  Thus, there was value in gaining more knowledge  about the underlying effect size(s) and testing to see whether the basic finding was actually robust.  Studies like that one as well as more modest contributions are welcome.  Personally, I would like more information about how well interactions between personality attributes and experimental manipulations tend to replicate especially when the original studies are seemingly underpowered.

What Don’t You Want to See?

I don’t want to single out too many specific topics or limit submissions but I can think of a few topics that are probably not going to be well received.  For instance, I am not sure we need to publish tons of replications showing there are 3 to 6 basic trait domains using data from college students.  Likewise, I am not sure we need more evidence that skilled factor analysts can find indications of a GFP (or general component) in a personality inventory.  Replications of well-worn and intensely studied topics are not good candidates for this special issue. The point is to get more data on interesting and understudied topics in personality psychology.

Final Thought

I hope we get a number of good submissions and the field learns something new in terms of specific findings. I also hope we also gain insights about the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to replication in personality psychology.